Advanced Silicon Processing & Manufacturing Techniques

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MODULE PROFILE

Module No: 10

Title: Doping Strategies and Thermal Processing

Delivered by: University of Surrey

Module Credits: 15

Assessment Weighting:

  • Pre-residential work: 3
  • Post-residential work: 7
  • Examination: 10

Convenor:

  • Professor Peter L F Hemment, University of Surrey

Lecturers/Tutors:
Internal:

  • Professor Peter L F Hemment
  • Professor Brian J Sealy
  • Professor Roger P Webb

External:

  • Professor Asen Asenov, University of Glasgow
  • Dr Eric Collart, Applied Materials, Horsham
  • Dr Michael Current, Frontier Semiconductor, San Josè, CA
  • Mr John Borland,, JOB Technologies
  • Professor Dr Ing Heiner Ryssel, IISB Erlangen, Germany
  • Dr Fuccio Cristiano, LAAS/CNRS Toulouse
  • Mr Dave Chivers, Ion Beam Services

Industrial Advisors:

  • Mr David Tait, Atmel, North Tyneside

Aims:

The aim of this module is to provide delegates with an in depth description of:

  • the science of doping technologies used in silicon manufatcure
  • the physical and practical limitations of doping technologies for future generation IC's
  • the manufacturing procedures to achieve improved device performances and higher yields

Learning Objectives:

On successful completion of this module delegates will have gained:

  • knowledge of the relative merits of ion beam and plasma doping technologies in advanced devices
  • an appreciation of the role of defects in mediating dopant concentration depth profiles
  • a sound working knowledge of electrical, optical and structural characterisation techniques and their limitations
  • an understanding of QA/QC techniques for dose control and wafer mapping
  • familiarity with state-of-the-art computer simulation tools
  • knowledge of strategies for reducing defects to improve manufacturing yields and enhance device reliability
  • deep appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of ion implantation in a manufacturing environment

Assessment:

  • Pre-residential sessions: assignments 15 %
  • Post-residential sessions: assignments 35 %
  • Examination (supervised) 50 %

Background to the Module:

Ion implantation is one of the key enabling technologies used in silicon microelectronics. It is used to controllably introduce impurity atoms into the near surface layer of semiconductor wafers both to dope uniformly across whole wafers and dope small well-defined areas of patterned wafers. The process is scalable, controllable, and highly reproducible and is used to achieve pre-determined concentration depth profiles to depths ranging from ~100 A to several microns. This versatility makes the technology very attractive to process engineers.

In this module the physics and technology of ion implantation in silicon manufacture will be critically discussed within the context of achieving the goals defined in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Procedures to achieve lower defect densities, higher manufacturing yields and improved device and circuit performances will be presented.

The technical content of this module complements Module 3 (Layer Deposition and Diffusion). Delegates will find that Module 1 (Introduction to IC Technology), Module 6 (Measurement Techniques and Failure Analysis), Module 11 (Lithography), Module 12 (Etching) and Module 14 (Oxidation and Isolation) contain material that will enhance their appreciation of the role of ion implantation within a manufacturing facility.

Pre-Requisite Knowledge:

Delegates undertaking this module, normally will be required to have studied an appropriate science subject (physics, chemistry, metallurgy), or an engineering discipline up to Honours Degree Level. Experience in clean-room working and background knowledge of materials and device characterisation methods, etching and thermal processing, will be highly beneficial.

Delivery & Assignments:

Delegates will be provided with comprehensive printed copies of the lecture notes, tutorial questions and other literature

  • Pre-residential sessions:
    • Directed reading
    • Problem solving/exercises
  •  

  • Residential week (35 hours contact time):
    • Lectures
    • Labs/demonstrations
    • Tutorials/case studies
    • Exercises
  • Post- residential sessions:
    • Advanced tutorial questions/case studies
    • Written report (2000 - 4000 words)
    • Supervised examination (3 questions out of 5, 2 hours)

     

SYLLABUS

  • Lectures: 27 hours
  • Laboratory Sessions: 3hours
  • Tutorials 3hours
Hours
Topic Content
1
Introduction Fundamentals: Moores Law, ITRS, strengths and weaknesses of ion based doping technologies
1
Phenonmenolgy of Ion Implantation Machines, primary and secondary defects. Dose,energy regimes
1
Device Architectures & Scaling Dimensions, statistics, profiles, performance
1
Doping Technologies Diffusion, epitaxy, ion implantation, plasma, laser doping
1
Ion Implanation I Fast ion/solid interactions: range, statistics, channelling. Primary damage
1
Thermal Processing I Time frames. Furnace, RTA, Laser. Phenomenology of dopant activation and diffusion
1
Diagnostics I Layer characterisation. Electrical, optical, SIMS, XPS, Auger, RBS
1
Diagnostics II Secondary defects. Defect structures. XTEM etc.,
1
Ion Implantation - Technology I Ion generation. Beam purity. Contamination
1
Safety and Environmental Issues Hazards - Voltage, chemical, radiation. Control. Systems-ergonomics
1
Ion Implantation - Technology II Systems overview. Beam transport. Scanning. End Station
1
Thermal Proecessing II Secondary defects, interactions between point defects/dopants. Physical models for diffusion and activation
1
Process Modelling Computer models. Simulation. Commercial Software
1
Manufacturing Issues I Ion/wafer interactions, charging, channelling. Dose conformity and control
1
Manufacturing Issues II Yield, throughput, COO, challenges

1

 

Device Applications I Ultra Low Energy/shallow layers, processing, RTP and pulse anneals etc;
1
Device Applications II High energy, buried layers, retorgrade wells. High doses: compound synthesis-SOI technologies
1
Future Technologies - machines, devices Heterostructures: SiGe, SiGeC, strained layers. Layer transfer. Cluster beams, plasma implantation
1
Case Studies and Problems  

Recommended Texts

  • Ion Implantation Science & Technology, (2000 edition) Ed J F Ziegler ISBN 0-9654207-0-1
  • Materials and Process Characterisation of Ion Implantation, Eds: M I Current and C B Yarling, Ion Beam Press, Austin, Texas, (1996)
  • Basics of Ion Implantation: Process, Equipment and Technology, Ed: M I Current, Ion Beam Press, Austin, Texas, (1997), ISBN 188-938-1020
  • Rapid Thermal Processing: Science & Technology, Ed: Richard B Fair, Academic Press (1993), ISBN: 0122-476-905
  • VLSI Fabrication Principles, Sorob K Ghandhi, John Wiley & Sons (1994), ISBN: 047-158-0058
  • Modern Semiconductor Device Physics, Ed: S M Sze, John Wiley & Sons (1998), ISBN 047-115-2374

NB: It is recommended that these books are ordered very early before you start this module, as they are often in short supply

CONFERENCE & JOURNAL PAPERS

  • Semiconductor International. Vols: 22, (1999/2000)
  • Semiconductor European. vols: 20 & 21, (1999/2000)
  • IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol: 20, (1999/2000)

TIMETABLE

NB: Details of module content, timetable and lecturers may be subject to change

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Module 10

 

   
Time
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
09.00 - 10.30
Housekeeping:

Introduction: Fundamentals:
Moores Law
Doping etc;

Peter Hemment

Ion Implantation I

Fast ion/solid Interactions: range statistics, channelling
Primary Damage

Roger Webb

Ion Implantation Technology I

Ion generation
Beam Purity

Contaminatio
n

Dave Chivers

Process Modelling

Computer Models
Simulation
Commercial Software

Roger Webb

Device Applications I

Ultra Low Energy
Shallow Layers
Processing:RTP' pulse anneals etc;

Erik Collart

10.30 - 11.00
COFFEE
COFFEE
COFFEE
COFFEE
COFFEE
11.00 - 12.30

Phenomenology of Ion Implantation

Machines
Primary & Secondary Defects. Dose, energy regimes

Peter Hemment

Thermal Processing I

Time frames:Furnace, RTA, Laser:Phenomenology of dopant activation, diffusion

 

Brian Sealy

Safety & Environmental Issues

Hazards - voltage, chemical, radiation, Control
Systems - ergonamics

Heiner Ryssel

Manufacturing Issues I

Ion/Wafer interactions. Charging, channelling. Dose uniformity & control

 

John Borland

Device Applications II

High energy, buried layers, retrograde wells. High doses, compound synthesis, SOI technologies

 

Michael Current

12.30 - 14.00
LUNCH
LUNCH
LUNCH
LUNCH
LUNCH
14.00 - 15.30

Device Architectures & Scaling

Dimensions, Statistics, profiles, performance

Asen Asenov

Diagnostics I

Layer characterisation
Electrical, Optical, SIMS, XPS, Auger, RBS

Heiner Ryssel

Ion Implant Technology II

Systems overview. Beam transport. Scanning. End Station

Michael Current

Manufacturing Issues II

Yield, through-put. COO. Challenges

John Borland

Future Technologies - machines, devices

Heterostructures: Sige, SigeC, strained layers Layer transfer
Cluster beams
Plasma implantation

Michael Current

15.30 - 16.00
TEA
TEA
TEA
TEA
TEA
16.00 - 17.30

Doping Technologies

Diffusion, epitaxy, ion implantation, plasma processing, laser doping

Brian Sealy

Diagnostics II

Secondary defects
Defect structures
XTEM etc;

Fuccio Cristiano

Thermal Processing II

Seondary defects, Interactions between point defects/dopants. Physical models for diffusion & activation

Fuccio Cristiano

Case Studies & Problems

Wind-up Session

Course Ends

 

Laboratory Visit

COURSE BANQUET

Enquiries and further information from:

Mrs Sandra Peace
IGDS Programme Co-ordinator
IGDS Office
School of Electronics & Physical Sciences
University of Surrey
Guildford
Surrey
GU2 7XH UK

Tel +44 (0)1483 686 138
Fax +44 (0)1483 686 139
e-mail: s.peace@surrey.ac.uk
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