Advanced Silicon Processing & Manufacturing Techniques

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Module Number: 8

Title: Power Devices & Processes

Delivered by: University of Wales, Swansea

Module Credits: 15

Assessment Weighting:

  • Pre-residential work: 3
  • Post-residential work: 7
  • Examination: 10


  • Professor Phil, University of Wales Swansea


  • Professor Phil Mawby
  • Dr Petar Igic
  • Dr Wissam Jamal
  • Dr Malcolm Towers
  • Mr Paul Holland


  • Professor Gehan Amaratunga, University of Cambridge
  • Dr Florin Udrea, University of Cambridge
  • Dr Mark Pavier, International Rectifier
  • Dr David Hinchley

Industrial Advisors:

  • Dr David Hinchley, Semelab, Lutterworth
  • Mr Peter Leach, Westcode Semiconductors, Chippenham
  • Mr Roy Grover, Philips Semiconductors, Hazlegrovee
  • Dr Peter Taylor, Dynex, Lincoln


The aim of this module is to describe the operation of power devices, the technologies that facilitate their manufacture and their applications in systems. The efficient manufacture of power devices and the required quality control will be covered in detail. Experienced process engineers from the power device industry will provide an insight into how this is achieved in a modern manufacturing plant.

Learning Objectives:

Upon successful completion of the module the delegate will have studied in depth and gained:

  • an overview of power device physics and device operating principles, and the key features that distinguish them from low power devices
  • a detailed understanding of the process design and technology behind device manufacture
  • knowledge of the relationship between the device design and its operating environment
  • an understanding of device packaging and thermal design
  • an appreciation of the application of power devices over the range Watts to Megawatts


  • Pre-residential sessions: assignments 15%
  • Post-residential sessions: assignments 35%
  • Examination: (supervised) 50%

Background to the Module:

The term "Power devices" includes any discrete device or integrated circuit whose prime function is for the regulation of power flow and power conversion. The actual applications may range from a few Watts up to many Megawatts, however, they all share many common attributes.

Lectures will be given by acknowledged experts from the University, partner institutions and member/associated members of NMI as well as specialists from the USA. The topic of each lecture or group of lectures will be introduced at degree level and then the subject will be developed up to Masters level and include the introduction of the latest design and technological developments. Laboratory demonstrations will illustrate how Power Devices are modelled, both from the physical point of view, and by the extraction and use of compact models.

Pre-requisite Knowledge:

Knowledge of semicondcutor fundamentals, electron and hole transport mechanism. Basic semiconductor processing technology, oxide growth, masking, implantation, diffusion and metallisation. Pn junction physics and operation. MOS operation and physics. Basic electronics of power conversion. Basic knowledge of device modelling and circuit modelling.

Delivery & Assignments:

Delegates will be provided with copies of the lecture notes, tutorial questions and other relevant material. In addition they will receive a copy of the Device/Circuit simulator used throughout the course free of charge.

  • Pre-residential sessions:
    • directed reading of the recommended texts
    • exercises based on this initial reading
  • Residential week (35 hours contact time):
    • lectures
    • laboratory sessions using industry 'state of the art' software
    • tutorials/case studies exercises
  • Post- residential sessions:
    • advanced tutorial questions
    • design example using TCAD software tools
    • supervised examination ( 3 questions out of 5, 2 hours)


  • Lectures 24˝hours
  • Laboratory sessions 7 hours
  • Tutorials/case studies 3˝hours
Topic Content
Semiconductor Fundamentals: Low and high field Carrier mobility effects : Lattice , impurity and carrier-carrier scattering, MOS surface mobility effects. Carrier lifetime : Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger. Lifetime control techniques. Resistively control : NTD material. High Field breakdown and junction termination techniques.
Bipolar Devices: Power Diodes : Ambipolar current transport, device/circuit interaction, reverse recovery behaviour, on-state voltage. BJT : operation, fabrication, Thyristors and GTO's :physical operation, structure, dv/dt capability, fabrication and process flow.
Power MOS: MOS device operation, DMOS structure. Typical process flow, trench structures, switching operation, on-state voltage drop, COOLMOS
IGBT: Structure and process flow, emitter efficiency
TCAD Exercise Bipolar operation: Simulation exercise on Power PiN Diode Look at effects of carrier lifetime, Charge storage and reverse recovery, reverse breakdown.
TCAD Exercise MOS operation: Simulation exercise based around classical DMOS and trench MOS structures, looking at critical design issues of gate oxide, source and drain design
Power device packaging and thermal aspects: Modern package designs for medium and high power devices. Thermal considerations for power devices and heatsinking models. Extraction of suitable heatsink model parameters.
Power device models for circuit design: Model requirements, basic building blocks of physically based models Bipolar transistor models charge storage and MOS models, Parameter extraction techniques and characterisation for power devices
Power integrated circuit technologies Integrated circuit processes suitable for power Conversion applications, bipolar amd MOS including Lateral MOS structures
Power electronics applications Conventional ac/dc conversion, single and three Phase switch mode rectification. Single and three phase inverters: 6-step voltage source inverters, 120 and 180 degrees of operation. PWM switching techniques, modern control techniques

Recommended Texts:

  • 'Power Devices' B J Baliga, Wiley, ISBN 0534940986, 1995
  • 'Thyristor Design and Realisation' P D Taylor, Wiley, ISBN 0-471-93572-7,1986
  • 'Physics of Semiconductor Devices' S M Sze, Wiley, ISBN 0-471-09837-X, 1981
  • 'Power Semiconductor Devices:Theory and Applications', Vitęzslav Benda, John Gowar and Duncan Grant Wiley ISBN 047197644X, 1999
  • 'Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs', IEEE, ISBN 0780313135, 1994

Conference & Journal Papers

  • "SiC power devices for high voltage applications" K.Rottner, M.Frischholz, T.Myrtveit, D.Mou, K.Nordgren, A.Henry, C.Hallin, U.Gustafsson, A.Schoner MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, 1999, Vol.61-2, pp.330-338
  • "A comparison of IGBT models for use in circuit design" A.N. Githiari, B.M.Gordon, R.A.McMahon_RA, Z.M.Li, P.A.Mawby_PA IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, 1999, Vol.14, No.4, pp.607-614
  • "1.2 kV trench insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT's) with ultralow on-resistance" F.Udrea, S.S.M.Chan, S.Thomson, T.Trajkovic, P.R.Waind, G.A.J.Amaratunga, D.E.Crees IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, 1999, Vol.20, No.8, pp.428-430
  • "Progress in the development of an 8-kV Light-Triggered Thyristor with integrated Protection functions" M.Ruff, H. Schulze and U Keller IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol.46, No.8, pp.1768-1774, Aug 1999
  • "COOLMOS - A new milestone in high voltage Power MOS" L.Lorenz,G.Deboy, A.Knapp and M.Marz ISPSD'99, Toronto May 26-28,1999, pp.3-10


NB: Details of module content, timetable and lecturers may be subject to change

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Module 8


09.00 - 10.45
Recap of Semiconductor fundamentals
Power MOS
Power Device Packaging
Power Electronics Applications
Power Integrated Circuit Technology
10.45 - 11.15
11.15 - 13.00
Bipolar Device Operation - Technology
Power MOS continued - technology
Thermal Aspects & Reliability
Power Electronics Applications
Power Integrated Circuit Technology
13.00 - 14.00
14.00 - 15.45
Bipolar Device Operation continued
IGTB Device Operation and Design
Power Device Circuit Models
Case Study
Post Course Tasks & Examinations Arrangements
15.45 - 16.15
16.15 - 18.00
Bipolar Device Operation/Device Modelling
IGTB Device Operation and Design continued
Laboratory: Device & Process TCAD Examples
Power Conversion Example
Course Ends
Enquiries and further information from:

Mrs Sandra Peace
IGDS Programme Co-ordinator,
IGDS Office
School of Electronics & Physical Sciences
University of Surrey

Tel +44 (0)1483 686 138
Fax +44 (0)1483 686 139
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